April 17, 2024

NECO 2023 Government Questions and Answers (Essay and Objective)
Thursday, 13th July 2023
Government (Objective & Essay) – 2:00pm – 4:40pm

OBJECTIVE ANSWERS

1-10:ECAABDCAAA

11-20:BCEABBEEAD

21-30:BCCCCCCDDA

31-40: EECEBBCEEA

41-50: DEAEEDEABA

51-60: BEAEACCCED

 

ESSAY ANSWERS

(1a)

(PICK ANY ONE)

State may be defined as a politically organised body of people inhabiting a defined geographical entity with an organized legitimate give legitimate government. The state in this respect is entirely free from external control.

OR

State refers to a political entity or a political organization that possesses sovereign authority over a defined territory and its population. It is a central institution that exercises control and governance within its borders.

(1b)

(PICK ANY FIVE)

(i)Sovereignty: This attribute signifies the state’s ultimate authority and independence within its territorial boundaries. A sovereign state has the power to govern itself without interference from external actors.

(ii)Territory: A state has defined geographical borders that determine its territory. This attribute includes land, water bodies, and airspace over which the state exercises control.

Population: A state consists of a group of people who live within its borders and are subject to its authority.

(iii)Government: A state has a system of governance that establishes the rules, institutions, and processes through which decisions are made and implemented. This attribute includes the executive, legislative, and judicial branches responsible for the administration of the state.

(iv)Law and Order: A state maintains law and order within its territory through the establishment of legal frameworks and enforcement agencies. This attribute ensures the protection of rights, the resolution of disputes, and the maintenance of social order.

(v)Diplomacy: States engage in diplomatic relations with other states, which involves negotiating agreements, participating in international organizations, and representing their interests on the global stage.

(vi)National Identity: States often possess a distinct national identity characterized by shared values, traditions, history, and symbols. This attribute contributes to a sense of belonging and loyalty among its citizens.

(vii)Economic System: States have different economic systems that define how resources are allocated, production is organized, and wealth is distributed. These systems can range from market-oriented capitalism to state-controlled socialism.

(viii)Defense and Security: States are responsible for safeguarding their territories and citizens from external threats. This attribute includes maintaining armed forces, conducting national security policies, and participating in collective defense alliances.

(3)

(i) Lobbying: Lobbying involves direct communication with government officials, lawmakers, or other influential individuals to advocate for specific policies or interests. Pressure groups use lobbying to provide information, present arguments, and exert influence through personal meetings, letters, phone calls, or emails.

(ii) Public Relations: Pressure groups often use public relations strategies to shape public opinion and gain support for their cause. They may organize public campaigns, rallies, demonstrations, or press conferences to raise awareness, generate media coverage, and mobilize public support.

(iii) Grassroots Mobilization: Pressure groups understand the power of grassroots mobilization, where they engage and activate their members and supporters at the local level. This technique involves organizing community events, door-to-door campaigns, petitions, or letter-writing campaigns to demonstrate widespread public support and create a sense of urgency.

(iv) Litigation: Pressure groups may resort to legal action to challenge government policies or decisions. They may file lawsuits or support individuals or organizations in legal battles to advance their cause. Litigation can be used to influence judicial interpretations, set legal precedents, or bring attention to specific issues.

(v) Campaign Financing: Pressure groups often contribute to political campaigns or support candidates who align with their goals. By providing financial support, they seek to gain favor and access to decision-makers. This technique allows pressure groups to influence policy decisions indirectly through their chosen candidates.

(vi) Research and Policy Analysis: Pressure groups invest in research and policy analysis to provide evidence-based arguments supporting their positions. They produce reports, studies, and white papers to demonstrate the potential impacts of specific policies, economic benefits, or social implications. This information helps pressure groups make persuasive cases to policymakers and the public.

(4)

(PICK ANY FIVE)

(i)Clear Guidelines and Policies: Develop and communicate clear guidelines and policies that explicitly outline the expectations for non-partisanship among civil servants.These guidelines should emphasize the importance of political neutrality and provide specific examples.

(ii)Political Activity Restrictions: Implement regulations that restrict civil servants from engaging in partisan political activities while on duty or in their official capacity. This can include limitations on participating in political campaigns, endorsing candidates, or engaging in activities that may compromise their impartiality.

(iii)Recruitment and Promotion Based on Merit: Establish transparent and merit-based systems for the recruitment, selection, and promotion of civil servants. Emphasize qualifications, skills, and experience as the primary criteria for hiring and advancement, rather than political connections or affiliations.

(iv)Training and Education: Provide regular training and education programs that focus on non-partisanship and ethical conduct for civil servants. These programs should emphasize the importance of maintaining impartiality in decision-making, avoiding conflicts of interest, and upholding the principles of public service.

(v)Independent Oversight and Accountability: Establish independent oversight mechanisms to monitor and investigate allegations of partisan behavior or misconduct among civil servants. These mechanisms should have the authority to receive and investigate complaints, protect whistleblowers, and take appropriate disciplinary actions when necessary.

(vi)Promote a Culture of Non-Partisanship: Foster a culture within the civil service that values and promotes non-partisanship. This can be achieved through leadership commitment, communication campaigns, and recognition of civil servants who demonstrate a commitment to impartiality.

(vii) Transparent Performance Evaluation: Implement a fair and transparent performance evaluation system that assesses civil servants based on their competence, professionalism, and adherence to non-partisan principles.Provide regular feedback and recognition for exemplary performance.

(5)

(i) Centralized Power: Military rule typically concentrates power in the hands of a small group of military leaders or a single military dictator. The military establishment exercises significant authority and influence over the government, often overshadowing or sidelining civilian institutions.

(ii) Suspension of Civil Liberties: Military rule often involves the curtailment or suspension of civil liberties and fundamental rights. Freedom of speech, assembly, and association may be restricted, and censorship may be imposed to control the flow of information and limit dissenting voices.

(iii) Suppression of Political Opposition: Military regimes tend to suppress or eliminate political opposition. Political parties and opposition groups may be banned, and dissenting voices may face persecution, imprisonment, or even violence. Elections, if held at all, may be tightly controlled or manipulated to maintain the military’s grip on power.

(iv) Authoritarian Governance: Military rule is typically characterized by authoritarian governance, where decision-making authority lies with a small group of military leaders. Civilian institutions may be weakened or dismantled, and the military often plays a dominant role in policymaking, law enforcement, and administration.

(v) Martial Law and Emergency Powers: Military rule frequently involves the imposition of martial law or emergency powers, granting the military extensive control and authority over civilian life. These powers may include the suspension of constitutional rights, imposition of curfews, and increased surveillance to maintain order and suppress dissent.

(vi) Focus on National Security: Military regimes often prioritize national security concerns and defense matters above other social and economic issues. Policies and resources are directed towards maintaining and expanding military capabilities, often at the expense of social welfare programs or development initiatives.

(6)

(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening the overall political structure. The government was unable to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust among the population.

(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts intensified the divide between the Western region and other regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national unity and cooperation.

(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public confidence and electoral support. The internal power struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.

(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system resulting from the Action Group crises.

(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence within the party undermined the principles of democracy, such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power. This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.

(vi) Socioeconomic Impact: The political instability caused by the Action Group crises had adverse effects on Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. The government’s focus shifted away from addressing critical issues such as infrastructure development, education, and poverty reduction. The lack of effective governance hindered progress and impeded the country’s overall development trajectory.

(6)

(i) Political Instability: The Action Group crises led to a period of political instability in Nigeria. The conflict within the party resulted in factionalism and infighting, weakening the overall political structure. The government was unable to effectively address pressing issues and provide stable governance, creating a sense of uncertainty and distrust among the population.

(ii) Regional Divisions: The crises exacerbated regional divisions within Nigeria. The Action Group had strong support in the Western region, and the internal conflicts intensified the divide between the Western region and other regions of the country. This further heightened ethnic and regional tensions, making it challenging to foster national unity and cooperation.

(iii) Decline of the Action Group: The crises significantly weakened the Action Group as a political force. The party splintered into factions, leading to a loss of public confidence and electoral support. The internal power struggles and divisions within the party contributed to its decline and eventual marginalization in Nigerian politics.

(iv) Rise of Military Intervention: The crises created a power vacuum and a perception of political instability. This provided an opportunity for the military to intervene in the political affairs of Nigeria. The subsequent military coups in 1966 and the subsequent military rule that followed were influenced, in part, by the fragility of the political system resulting from the Action Group crises.

(v) Erosion of Democratic Processes: The Action Group crises highlighted the fragility of Nigeria’s democratic processes. The breakdown of trust and the use of violence within the party undermined the principles of democracy, such as fair elections and peaceful transitions of power. This erosion of democratic values had long-lasting implications for Nigeria’s governance and political system.

(vi) Socioeconomic Impact: The political instability caused by the Action Group crises had adverse effects on Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. The government’s focus shifted away from addressing critical issues such as infrastructure development, education, and poverty reduction. The lack of effective governance hindered progress and impeded the country’s overall development trajectory.

(7)

(i) National Security: Ensuring national security is a primary concern for any country, and it significantly influences foreign policy decisions. Nigeria faces security challenges such as terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border conflicts. These security concerns drive Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives, including cooperation with regional and international partners, intelligence sharing, and efforts to combat terrorism.

(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a crucial role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria is an oil-rich nation, and its economy heavily relies on oil exports. Therefore, maintaining favorable economic relations with other countries, attracting foreign investments, securing access to international markets, and diversifying its economy are key foreign policy objectives for Nigeria.

(iii) Regional Leadership: As the most populous country in Africa and a regional power, Nigeria seeks to exert leadership and influence within the African continent. Nigeria plays an active role in regional organizations like the African Union (AU), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Gulf of Guinea Commission. Nigeria’s foreign policy aims to promote stability, peacekeeping efforts, conflict resolution, and economic integration within Africa.

(iv) Political Stability: Nigeria’s foreign policy is influenced by the need to maintain political stability both domestically and in its neighboring countries. Internal political stability allows Nigeria to project a positive image internationally and enhances its ability to engage in diplomacy, trade, and cooperation with other nations.

(v) Historical Factors: Historical experiences and relationships also shape Nigeria’s foreign policy. Nigeria was a former British colony and gained independence in 1960. Its history of colonization and struggles for independence have influenced its worldview and foreign policy objectives. Nigeria maintains close ties with other Commonwealth countries, particularly those in Africa, and seeks to promote African solidarity and decolonization.

(vi) Global Alliances and Multilateralism: Nigeria actively participates in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and strives to maintain positive relationships with major global powers. Nigeria’s foreign policy seeks to leverage its position within these organizations and forge alliances to advance its national interests, promote peace and security, and address global challenges such as climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

(9a)

Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. It establishes a dual sovereignty structure, where the central government and the regional governments each have their respective powers and responsibilities. Federalism allows for a distribution of power that aims to balance the interests of both the central government and the regional units.

(9b)

(i) Representation and Participation: Creating new states within a federation allows for a more inclusive and representative political system. It ensures that diverse regions or communities have a voice and can actively participate in decision-making processes at both the regional and national levels. State creation can help address regional imbalances and promote a sense of belonging and identity among different groups within a country.

(ii) Decentralization of Power: By creating new states, power is decentralized and shared among multiple regional entities. This can prevent the concentration of power in a single central authority and promote local governance. Decentralization allows for more effective and responsive administration, as regional governments can address local issues and priorities more directly.

(iii) Regional Development and Resource Allocation: State creation can be motivated by the need to promote balanced regional development and ensure equitable distribution of resources. It allows for specific regions to have greater control over their own resources and development plans. This can lead to focused development initiatives, tailored to the specific needs and priorities of each region, thus reducing regional disparities.

(iv) Cultural and Linguistic Autonomy: Creating states within a federation can provide protection and autonomy for distinct cultural, linguistic, or ethnic communities. It allows for the preservation and promotion of local languages, customs, traditions, and identities. State creation can empower communities to safeguard their cultural heritage and exercise their right to self-determination within the framework of a larger federal structure.

(v) Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Coexistence: In some cases, state creation can be a means to resolve long-standing conflicts or ethnic tensions within a country. By granting greater autonomy and self-governance to specific regions, it may help accommodate the aspirations of different communities and foster peaceful coexistence. State creation can serve as a mechanism for managing diversity and promoting stability within a federation.

(10)

(i) Emir/Sarki: The Emir or Sarki was the supreme executive authority in the Hausa Fulani administration. Their duties included maintaining law and order, overseeing the administration, and making decisions on political, economic, and social matters. They had the power to enforce policies and resolve disputes within their jurisdiction.

(ii) Waziri: The Waziri served as the prime minister or chief advisor to the Emir/Sarki. They were responsible for providing counsel, guidance, and recommendations on governance matters. The Waziri played a crucial role in the decision-making process and assisted in implementing policies and managing the administrative affairs of the kingdom.

(iii) Madawaki: The Madawaki was a high-ranking officer responsible for coordinating the military forces of the kingdom. Their duties included organizing and leading the army during times of war or conflict. The Madawaki worked closely with the Emir/Sarki to ensure the security and defense of the kingdom.

(iv) Dan Iyan: The Dan Iyan was the chief courtier or chamberlain in the Hausa Fulani administration. They acted as the personal attendant to the Emir/Sarki and managed the affairs of the royal court. Their duties included organizing court proceedings, maintaining protocol, and ensuring the smooth functioning of the Emir’s household.

 

(v) Galadima: The Galadima was an important administrative officer responsible for overseeing the affairs of the province or district within the kingdom. Their duties included collecting taxes, maintaining public infrastructure, settling disputes, and implementing the policies and directives of the Emir/Sarki at the local level.

(vi) Dogari: The Dogari was in charge of the treasury and finance of the kingdom. They managed the collection of taxes, controlled the kingdom’s resources, and ensured proper accounting and financial management. The Dogari played a crucial role in maintaining the economic stability and prosperity of the kingdom.

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